The Historic Russian Recipe That Turns Apples Into Marshmallows

Audria Easterly

Dostoevsky beloved it. Catherine the Fantastic liked it. Sofia Tolstaya, Tolstoy’s prolonged-suffering wife and assistant, created it. It was when the quintessential Russian dessert: pastila. Sweet, fluffy pastila was a common afternoon tea snack at aristocratic Russian soirees of the 19th century. To make it, apple puree—essentially, applesauce—egg whites, and […]

Dostoevsky beloved it. Catherine the Fantastic liked it. Sofia Tolstaya, Tolstoy’s prolonged-suffering wife and assistant, created it. It was when the quintessential Russian dessert: pastila.

Sweet, fluffy pastila was a common afternoon tea snack at aristocratic Russian soirees of the 19th century. To make it, apple puree—essentially, applesauce—egg whites, and sugar are leavened with a lot and plenty of air that is compelled into the combination with challenging whisking. What takes place subsequent is improbable but breathtaking. The earthy apple gloop transforms into a gleaming white cloud, as light-weight and smooth as a goose-down comforter.

Following, this comfortable product is carefully distribute into pans and baked at a low temperature for several hours. What outcomes is, for deficiency of a greater description, a pale, caramel-colored marshmallow or meringue that is exquisitely apple-flavored.

To Darra Goldstein, nevertheless, pastila stands apart from both equally meringue and marshmallow. “Some people have compared it to a marshmallow, but it is not as chewy and it is not crisp like a meringue,” she points out. “But it has that excellent of softness that you get within some tender meringues.”

Goldstein, one particular of the foremost authorities on Russian delicacies and the founder of Gastronomica journal, understands what she’s speaking about. And she’s been obsessed with pastila for decades. Her numerous cookbooks incorporate pastila recipes. In accordance to her, pastila is hundreds of several years old, nevertheless she hesitates to title an precise period of origin. What she does know is that it started out as fruit leather, sweetened with honey and dried in an oven. The identify, she says, comes from the Slavic postel, or mattress, most likely owing to the mixture’s fluffy visual appeal in the wood trays utilized to dry it.

Pastila comes in all different shapes and hues. Denis Karpenkov / Alamy Inventory Photograph

Pastila’s acceptance springs from the prolonged-held Russian appreciate of apples. My friend, Stanislav “Stas” Nikiforov, agrees. A tech CTO dwelling in New York, he used the very first half of his daily life in Russia. Throughout the ocean, his enthusiasm for his nationwide lifestyle and cuisine has only grown. As for why apples are so current in his mom cuisine, he responds with a dilemma in flip. “Why is cheese important to the French or potatoes to Peruvians?” he asks rhetorically. Russia, he factors out, has traditionally had an massive variety of apples, and familiarity in this situation bred passion. “It’s a tree that can provide—like wood, shade, fruit—and grows seriously, really nicely,” specially in chilly Russia, he says. “And it is really very good-seeking to boot.”

Ahead of the Russian Revolution, the apple-growing towns south of Moscow vied to create the most wonderful kinds of pastila. The greatest, it is explained, is designed with the hardy, large, cold-loving Antonovka apples. But the primary aspect of Antonovka apples is their acid. Sour and underripe apples, as it comes about, have the most pectin, the compound that gives pastila its gummy texture.

Zephyr-style pastila, on the left, and a colorful stacked variety on the right.
Zephyr-design and style pastila, on the left, and a vibrant stacked selection on the appropriate. The Washington Write-up / Getty

Kolomna and Belyov are continue to the most well known pastila-developing towns, and, according to Goldstein’s cookbook Outside of the North Wind: Russia in Recipes and Lore, every single promises to be dependable for one key pastila innovation. A person legend has it that Kolomna was the 1st to whip pastila into airiness, sometime during the 14th century. A Belyov service provider in the 19th century, on the other hand, was the initially to increase egg whites, earning the address even fluffier.

In the days ahead of energy, making pastila was unpleasant labor. Without the need of a mechanical mixer, beating cooked apples into fluff had to be performed by hand. A single “particularly exquisite” 19th-century range, says Goldstein, experienced to be crushed for an agonizing 48 straight hours. “So in Russia, you experienced serfs and they had been in the kitchen and they were whipping the pastila,” notes Goldstein. “So it wasn’t any exertion on the portion of the men and women who would be taking pleasure in it.”

Cue the Russian Revolution. Underneath the restrictions and scarcities of the Soviet Union, pastila bit by bit faded away. “It was not section of the essential foods groups,” states Goldstein. “It was difficult plenty of for them to get primary meals to marketplace, which they did not do well in accomplishing either.” Quite a few of Russia’s standard, strange, or one of a kind foodstuff fulfilled the exact fate. But lately, there has been a substantial upswing of desire in recovering ancestral Russian recipes. A 10 years ago, my mate Stas took observe that the fascination in restoring Russian foodways turned mainstream. To him, it was primarily poignant. “We usually grew up imagining that a large amount of our culture had been just totally obliterated,” he states. “Then there is this wave of men and women unearthing definitely outdated recipes these types of as Belyov pastila. And so everybody’s like, holy shit, this is what this point is meant to search like.”

 Staff in period costume prepare tea and pastila at the Museum of Forgotten Flavors in Kolomna.
Employees in period costume put together tea and pastila at the Museum of Overlooked Flavors in Kolomna. The Washington Post / Getty Images

Pastila has had a spectacular reintroduction in each Belyov and Kolomna. In 2008, Kolomna city council member Natalia Nikitina and her close friend Elena Dimitrieva started making the dessert once more as a deal with for the global group in town for the European Pace Skating Championships.

In the 19th-century author Ivan Lazhechnikov’s novel The Ice Home, Nikitina located a reference to Kolomna’s earlier prominence as a pastila producer. Alongside one another with Dmitirieva, she researched how to make the historic apple address in the Russian Point out Library, together the way locating references to all the luminaries—Catherine the Great, Dostoevsky, and the Tolstoys—who liked and documented their adore of pastila.

Basic, sweet pastila was when once again a hit. In 2009, the gals opened a museum and manufacturing unit focused to the dessert. At the Museum of Neglected Flavors, or Kolomenskaya Pastila, people are welcomed by costumed actors who demonstrate the record of pastila, and a store sells dozens of distinctive versions, from rosette-shaped zephyr to a hop-and-lemon-flavored pastila with intended hangover-curing qualities. Unfortunately, the partnership among Dmitirieva and Nikitina ended with acrimony and lawsuits in 2015. In a twist deserving of a Russian novel, Dmitirieva now operates yet another pastila museum down the road, by the identify of Muzeynaya Fabrika Pastily.

Belyov has also resumed creation of the address, and these times, professional pastila is quick to locate on the net, even outside of Russia. But homemade or artisanal pastila is greatest. That information arrives from Stas. “I know pretty several merchandise in which the change among the common and what most folks acquire in a supermarket is so substantial,” he claims. So pay attention to Stas, and except you can prepare a vacation to Kolomna or Belyov, make pastila at household. There’s no want to defeat it for hours: An electric mixer will do the position in minutes, and all it requires is a minor patience to wait for the pastila to slowly dry in the oven. But that is a little amount of time to wait around in get to flavor the dessert that Goldstein states is “the critical taste of Russia.”

Sour, even underripe apples are best for pastila.
Sour, even underripe apples are best for pastila. Anne Ewbank for Gastro Obscura


Tends to make 8 to 10 slices

This recipe takes a cue from Belyov-type pastila, which is stacked into layers, dried once more, and then sliced. But Goldstein recommends only having two layers and sandwiching them together with jam.


6 large apples (if you are outside Russia, Granny Smith tends to make a good substitution for Antonovka)
¾ cup granulated sugar
2 egg whites
Powdered sugar for dusting


1. Preheat your oven to 350º F. Clean the apples, and area them into a shallow, oven-risk-free dish with a ¼ inch of h2o at the bottom. Then, roast the apples for an hour, or until they’re golden, saggy, and wrinkly.

2. Remove the apples from the oven, and let them to amazing absolutely. (For now, convert off the oven.) Then, scrape the skins and cores until finally you have a mound of delicate, seed-no cost puree. With a blender, method the puree until finally easy.

3. Following arrives the entertaining aspect. Set the puree, egg whites, and granulated sugar in the bowl of your stand mixer (or get out your handheld mixer and the major mixing bowl you have). Whip the apple-sugar-egg combination for 10 minutes, generating positive to scrape down the sides occasionally.

4. Meanwhile, preheat the oven once once more, this time to 180º F or the most affordable environment it will go. Line a cookie sheet, including the sides, with parchment paper.

5. Again at the mixer, the puree will have just about quadrupled in dimensions just after 10 minutes. Stop the equipment once you have a bowl crammed with gleaming, thick white foam. Scrape the foam into the pan, reserving about a cup and a 50 percent and putting it in the fridge.

6. Unfold the remaining foam in the pan evenly, and leave it in the oven for 4 to 6 hrs. The pastila needs to be dry to the touch, and solid adequate to select up as a person overall sheet with out remaining very floppy. If not, return it to the oven.

7. Take away the pastila from the oven and permit it to neat totally ahead of peeling absent the parchment paper.

8. With a knife dipped in sizzling water, minimize the pastila into three equivalent items (you’ll want three rectangles in its place of a few very long strips). Applying the reserved puree as glue, stack the three items on best of each individual other, using the puree to patch any holes or fill any pits.

8. Then, on a baking sheet lined with far more parchment paper, return the pastila to the oven the moment additional, for an hour and a 50 %. Just after building positive the layers have all molded collectively, eliminate it from the oven and enable it neat.

9. When the pastila is awesome, rub it all in excess of with powdered sugar, and carefully slice down as a result of the layers in inch-very long increments (the resulting items will glance like ladyfingers). The pastila, now ready to be eaten with tea, will keep in a sealed container.

Gastro Obscura handles the world’s most wondrous food items and drink.

Signal up for our email, shipped two times a week.

Next Post

House Cooks Acquire Favored Covid-Era Recipes

The 18-member Rotary Club in Lake City, Minn., could not have its wine-tasting fundraiser because of the pandemic, so it revealed the “The Fantastic 2020 Pepin Pandemic Cookbook” named just after the regional lake, with 239 recipes, helpful tips for perking up soggy lettuce and jokes. “I’ll notify you a […]